• 轟炸台拓化學嘉義工場、嘉義調車場
    US Bombed Kagi Butanol Plant & Railroad Yards

    Posted on December 18th, 2013 Administrator No comments


    アジア歴史資料センター (Japan Center for Asian Historical Records)

    自從上個月初po了《美國陸軍飛機攻擊嘉義化學工場》之後,我在英文和日文的檔案裡又找到許多資料,原來美軍首次轟炸台拓化學嘉義工場的日期應該是1945年4月3日(如以上日文檔案所示),所以今天就來公開這次任務的資料。
    Since I posted USAAF Bombed Kagi Butanol Plant last month, I have found more information on the US military actions against this facility in both American and Japanese archives. It turned out that the first strike against the Butanol Plant most likely took place on April 3, 1945 (as shown in the Japanese document above), which is the subject of this post.

    這次編號為93-C-1(A)的任務是由美國陸軍第5航空軍第38轟炸大隊之下的四個轟炸中隊共同執行,由第822轟炸中隊領軍,主要目標除了台拓化學嘉義工場,還包括嘉義火車站旁的鐵路調車場。每個中隊各派出四架B-25中型轟炸機,每架飛機掛載四枚250磅傘降破壞彈(para demolition bomb),以超低空高度投彈。第822中隊與第823中隊編為第一組,但是他們的飛機在通過化學工場上空時不會投彈,而是到調車場時才投彈攻擊。這樣第二組的第405中隊和第71中隊在攻擊化學工場時,就不需冒險穿越第一組轟炸引發的爆炸和濃煙。預計於東京時間上午0845起飛,然後在1115與護航的P-38戰鬥機會合前往目標區。美軍在當天1230還規劃由第90轟炸大隊的B-24重型轟炸機對嘉義飛行場進行轟炸,所以第38轟炸大隊的B-25必須在半小時前完成任務。
    The mission, 93-C-1(A), was to be conducted by the four squadrons of the 38th Bombardment Group, each squadron contributing four B-25 medium bombers. The 822nd Bombardment Squadron was to lead the strike group to attack the Butanol Plant and Kagi Railroad Marshalling Yards. Each airplane would carry four 250-lb para demolition bombs to be dropped from minimum altitude. The 822nd and 823rd Squadrons would be over the target area first and would not drop the bombs on the Butanol Plant but save them for the Marshalling Yards. This was considered necessary so the second flight would not have to risk the danger of flying through dense smoke and fire in the event that the lead flight was successfully in dropping on the plant. Take-off was scheduled for 0845/I (equivalent to Tokyo time) and rendezvous with eight escorting P-38 fighters was set at 1115/I. B-24 heavy bombers of the 90th Bombardment Group were to bomb the Kagi Airdrome at 1230/I and the B-25 were to be over the target one-half hour before they arrive.

    任務當天早上,第822中隊的B-25先於0840從呂宋島上的林加延(Lingayen)機場起飛,其餘三個中隊的飛機緊接在五分鐘後起飛。當他們於預定時間飛抵台灣南方的集結點上空時卻不見護航的P-38,因此在原地盤旋到1125才一同前往目標區。編在第一組的第822中隊與第823中隊在1207抵達目標,第823中隊負責東半部的目標,所以他們的飛機並未飛越化學工場上空;第822中隊按照計畫並未對化學工場投彈,但是在飛越過程中持續以50機槍對工場掃射,子彈擊中一具鍋爐並疑似擊中一個油槽,前者發生爆炸冒出白煙,後者則冒出大量的黑煙。
    The four B-25 of the 822nd Squadron took off from Lingayen Strip, Philippine Islands, at 0840/I, while bombers of the other three squadrons at 0845/I. When they arrived at the rendezvous point on schedule, the P-38 fighter cover had not arrived. So the bombers circled until 1125/I and upon the arrival of the P-38 headed fro the target area. The 822nd and 823rd Squadrons were over the target at 1207/I. The 823rd Squadron covered the the east half of the target and no planes from this Squadron passed over the Butanol Plant. The 822nd Squadron strafed the entire area including the Butanol Plant on the approach to the Railroad Yards, hitting a probable oil storage tank and a boiler on one of the main buildings and resulting in a large black smoke and a large explosion with white smoke, respectively.

    以下的照片A是由第822中隊在化學工場的儲存槽區上空拍攝,照片上可以看到機槍掃射在地面上激起的白煙:
    Photo A was taken over some storage tanks in the Butanol Plant by the 822nd Squadron. Small white smokes caused by the strafing are clearly visible:

    照片B也是由第822中隊拍攝,在背景的儲存槽區已經冒出了濃煙:
    Photo B was also taken by the 822nd Squadron. Smoke can be seen emit from the storage tank area:

    當第405中隊和第71中隊的B-25在1208進入目標區時,化學工場已經濃煙瀰漫。第405中隊直接對工場投下八枚炸彈,引發更多的爆炸和火勢。照片C是第405中隊在脫離化學工場時所拍攝,背景可見濃煙:
    When the B-25 of the 405th Squadron swept in for the kill at 1208/I with those of the 71st Squadron, the Butanol Plant was partially obscured by the preceding flight’s assault. The 405th Squadron’s bombs dropped eight bombs directly at the Butanol Plant, resulting in many fires and secondary explosions. Photo C was taken by the 405th Squadron as their bombers withdrew from the Butanol Plant. Smokes can be seen in the background:

    第822中隊的四架B-25在調車場周圍投下全部16枚炸彈,在他們拍攝的照片D後方可見調車場一帶的爆炸:
    The four B-25 of the 822nd Squadron dropped all of their sixteen bombs on the target area around the Railroad Yards, as can be seen in Photo D:

    第823中隊在調車場周圍投下6枚炸彈,命中兩輛油罐車和一座倉庫。以下兩張照片都是第823中隊所攝,調車場在照片I中清晰可見:
    The 823rd Squadron dropped six bombs in the Railroad Yards scoring hits on two tank cars apparently loaded with gasoline and on a warehouse. The next two photos were both taken by the 823rd Squadron. Photo I gives a nice view of the Railroad Yards:

    照片E中可見油罐車被炸中引發高達200英呎的濃煙,另外也可看到倉庫爆炸的黑煙:
    Photo E shows a shout of flame to 200 feet as a result of the hit on the tank cars and a black smoke fire coming from the warehouse:

    第405中隊還對化學工場西南方的數棟外觀像是軍營的建築投下五枚炸彈,但戰果不明,另外兩枚炸彈則炸中調車場上的貨車。以下照片F照片G均由第405中隊拍攝,可見調車場一帶冒出的濃煙:
    The 405th Squadron also dropped five bombs on four to six wooden barracks typ buildings 800 feet southwest of the Butanol Plant with unobserved results, and two bombs with direct hits on a freight car up at the Railroad Yards. Photo F and Photo G were both taken by the 405th Squadron, showing smokes and explosions at the Railroad Yards:

    第405中隊脫離目標區的過程中對調車場北面500英呎處的幾棟民房投下最後一枚炸彈,如照片H所示:
    In Photo H, the 405th dropped their last bomb amongst a cluster of houses 500 feet north of the west end of the Railroad Yards with unobserved results:

    第71中隊的B-25也在目標區投下全部16枚炸彈,但是我沒有取得他們拍攝的照片。
    The B-25 of the 71st Squadron dropped all their 16 bombs in the target area. However, their strike photos are not available.

    我把前述九張照片裡的八張拍攝地點標示在下面這張其他日期拍攝的空照圖上:
    The locations where the eight of the above nine photos were taken are shown on the following reconnaissance image unrelated to the strike:


    Via 中央研究院美國國家檔案館典藏臺灣舊航空照片 (Via Academia Sinica)

    同一區域的現代衛星空照圖:
    You may want to compare with the modern satellite image of the same area:


    顯示詳細地圖

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