• 美國陸軍飛機轟炸馬公港
    USAAF Bombed Mako Harbor

    Posted on December 1st, 2013 Administrator 2 comments

    1945年4月4日上午,美國陸軍航空隊第345轟炸大隊第498轟炸中隊的6架B-25轟炸機,和同大隊第500轟炸中隊的6架同型機,從呂宋島的聖瑪西利諾(San Marcelino)起飛,目標是澎湖群島的馬公港。他們在下午兩點半過後抵達目標區,由第498中隊的飛機執行第一波攻擊,第500中隊殿後。兩個中隊的飛機先後炸中了停泊在東碼頭東側的一艘2000噸運油艦(美軍稱為Sugar Able Sugar),引發的大火(見上圖,運油艦完全被火吞噬,所以看不見)波及了西側的一艘2500噸貨船(上圖中所見的大型船隻,美軍稱為Sugar Baker Sugar),港內的其他較小型船隻(Sugar Dog)也遭到攻擊。
    On April 4, 1945, six B-25 of the 498 Bombardment Squadron, 345th Bombardment Group, and six B-25 of the 500th Bombardment Squadron took off from San Marcelino, Luzon. Their target was Mako Harbor in the Pescadores Islands. These bombers reached the target area shortly after 1430 and began the bombing run with the 498th Squadron leading the 500th Squadron. Their bombs scored a direct hit on the 2000-ton tanker (codenamed Sugar Able Sugar) tied to the east pier, resulting in a large explosion followed by fire (see the top photo; the tanker is completely engulfed in flames and thus cannot be seen). The fire spread across the jetty and enveloped a 2500-ton freighter (codenamed Sugar Baker Sugar) tied to the opposite side (the large ship partially obscured by the black smoke in the top photo). Other Sugar Dogs in the harbor were also bombed or strafed.

    在下面這張照片裡,前述的2500噸貨船完全被黑煙籠罩(照片最右側),遠方的濃煙應該是第500中隊投下的炸彈所造成,照片最左邊的爆炸則可能是一艘Sugar Dog被炸中。
    On the right-hand of the photo below, the aforementioned freighter is completely obscured by smoke. The explosions in the background were likely the work of the 500th Squadron. The explosion on the left-hand side probably damaged a Sugar Dog.

    在美軍的攻擊過程中,日軍也以大小口徑防空武器還擊,猛烈的防空砲火擊落了第500中隊的023號機,並且擊傷一架第498中隊的飛機和4架第500中隊的飛機。023號機的機員名單如下:
    The anti-aircraft fire by the Japanese on the ground was intense and accurately, holing one B-25 of the 498th and four of the 500th. Airplane 023 of the 500th Squadron was fatally hit and plunged into the harbor. The crew is as follows:

    下圖是第498中隊戰報中的攻擊示意圖,SAS、SBS、SD分別是Sugar Able Sugar、Sugar Baker Sugar、Sugar Dog的縮寫:
    The following is a sketch made by the 498th Squadron. SAS, SBS, and SD stand for Sugar Able Sugar, Sugar Baker Sugar, and Sugar Dog, respectively.

    下圖則是第500中隊繪製的攻擊示意圖:
    The 500 the Squadron’s sketch:

    美軍偵察機在1943年12月拍攝的馬公港區下照片:
    The next reconnaissance photo was taken in December 1943:

    如今的馬公港區變化很大,但是最上圖中被濃煙烈火籠罩的東碼頭保留了下來:
    Although Mako Harbor has changed quite a bit, the east pier where the fiery action took place remains:


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    3 responses to “美國陸軍飛機轟炸馬公港
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    • 油輪為八百噸級第二近油丸

    • 美軍戰報所稱2500噸級貨船是1565噸的特設救難船寶嶺丸(Horei Maru). 原船照片請參見:
      http://www.combinedfleet.com/HoreiS_c.htm

    • 美軍轟炸澎湖談歷史記憶

      本月初,國民黨總統候選人韓國瑜在桃園失言「第二次世界大戰美軍大反撲……沒有打到臺灣,只打到琉球」,輿論譁然,抨擊其漠視美軍於二戰對臺澎的空襲。澎湖子弟冼義哲也於日前投書附和,稱「一九四四年十月七日,先曾祖父被美軍轟炸時的戰鬥機掃射身中三槍重傷……當年馬公街居民皆被往鄉下疏散避戰火……馬公街被美軍炸到滿目瘡痍、一片火海」,宣稱「白恐時期,黨國為保全正當性而虛構『二戰日本轟炸臺灣』的史觀」,強調「不能不知道臺灣的歷史」。但其內容有待商榷。

      臺澎遭逢美軍大規模空襲,始自一九四四年十月十二日到十六日的臺灣沖航空戰,當時美國海軍第卅八特遣艦隊分成四個分隊,對臺澎重要目標進行掃蕩轟炸,並擊落日軍戰機三百餘架,日本從此失去臺灣空優。十月七日,第卅八特遣艦隊連對沖繩空襲都還沒發動,怎能穿越未來轟炸澎湖?何況此役間,馬公居民雖避難至鄉間,但十月十六日後便陸續返回市區,直到一九四五年三月間遭逢重大轟炸,才真正發生「馬公街被美軍炸到滿目瘡痍,一片火海」,居民大規模出逃的情況。

      尤有甚者,冼氏指稱「白恐」期間,黨國編造「二戰時日本轟炸臺灣」的史觀,對教育界眾多前賢恐為莫大汙衊。早期受限於戒嚴,史地課程訴求大中華情懷,臺灣史長期缺席,屬於課程理論中根本不存在的空無課程(null curriculum)。既然連提都無法提,又何來「編造日本轟炸臺灣的歷史」?解嚴十年後,一九九七年《認識臺灣》教科書投入使用,臺灣史方才受到學校教育的重視,隨著社會進步,此後的課程更不可能杜撰「二戰時日本轟炸臺灣」了。冼氏若真有懷疑,何不親訪新北市的國家教育研究院,調閱過去半世紀所有的各版本教科書?

      正如冼氏所言「島嶼的傷痛記憶,不應埋沒遺忘」。現今資訊如此發達,踏踏實實治史並不困難,端看有無誠意而已,則前述錯誤百出的「歷史記憶」,是不能或不為呢?https://talk.ltn.com.tw/article/paper/1330954


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