• 擁有美日護照的國父
    Nat’l Founding Father Had US & Japan Passports

    Posted on May 25th, 2013 Administrator No comments

    被尊稱為中華民國國父的孫文(可是他的英文名字卻是孫逸仙的譯音Sun Yat Sen)曾經擁有美國公民身分之事,媒體在兩年前就報過,還獲得國民黨黨史館的「認證」,已經不是新聞。例如具有準官方身分的中央社在2011年6月6日就發過相關的新聞,其中提到:

    邵銘煌表示,1904年是孫中山成立興中會後發起革命的第10年,但當時革命仍很艱辛,不但在中國面臨滿清政府緝拿,在海外僑界也遭保皇黨勢力掣肘,有次國父甚至還被當時的美國移民當局關押數天,因此當地僑領建議,若要在美國本土推展中國革命,最好能擁有美國身分。

    他指出,包括國父在舊金山的親友,當時就一起運作,幫孫中山向夏威夷的州政府取得在夏威夷出生證明,讓孫中山成為美國公民,「這當然是為了革命的權宜之計,無法改變國父在翠亨村出生的事實」。

    In 2011, the American Institute in Taiwan (AIT) planned a special exhibition about Sun Yat-Sen, referred to as the National Founding Father of the Republic of China (ROC) here, in which documents showing Sun’s US citizenship were on display. The director of KMT’s department of history, Shao Ming-huang, quickly dismissed the case, as reported by the Taipei Times on Jun 07, 2011:

    With the US Chinese Exclusion Act severely limiting Chinese immigration, Sun had difficulty entering the US and was even detained by US authorities at one point, Shao said.
    Sun’s detention prompted an overseas Chinese to say that if Sun wanted to promote a Chinese -revolution on US soil, it would be best if he had US citizenship, Shao said.
    Sun’s friends in San Francisco set in motion plans for him to obtain US citizenship by faking a birth certificate showing that he was born in Honolulu, Shao said.
    Sun asked for a birth certificate from Hawaii because he had lived and studied there in his early teens, Shao said, adding that the date on the birth certificate — Nov. 24, 1870 — was chosen to reflect the founding date of the Hsing Chung Hui to establish a connection with his revolutionary activities.
    “It was a makeshift plan for the good of the revolution and it does not change where Sun was born,” Shao said.

    (1904年哪來的夏威夷「州」政府?)不過我從最近取得的美國政府檔案和舊報紙裡發現,除了邵銘煌先生的說明不合邏輯,孫逸仙先生(此乃美方文件所用的姓名)事實上還持有過日本護照,所以在此重現這些文件,讓各位讀者參考。
    The Taipei Times article was translated from a piece written in Chinese by The Central News Agency (CNA), but the translation was not quite accurate. The original CNA article says (quoting Shao) that Sun’s friends “and relatives” in San Francisco helped him obtain a Hawaiian birth certificate from Hawaii “State” Government, while Taipei Times says the birth certificate was faked. Anyway, the documents that I recently obtained from the US National Archive show that Shao’s story simply does not add up. In fact, the documents show that Sun Yat-Sen once held a Japanese passport, in addition to the American one. I would like to share these documents with all of you.

    首先請各位再仔細讀一次中央社引述邵先生的文字:「有次國父甚至還被當時的美國移民當局關押數天,因此當地僑領建議,若要在美國本土推展中國革命,最好能擁有美國身分。」除非是我的語文能力太差,否則怎麼看都是先發生了被移民當局關押(英文是detention,翻作「留置」也許較好)的事件,之後僑領才建議取得美國身分,然後才由親友運作取得在夏威夷出生證明。
    Please read carefully Shao’s statement, which implies the following sequence of events: 1) Sun was detained by the US authorities; 2) an overseas Chinese suggested that Sun get US citizenship; 3) Sun obtained a birth certificate from Hawaii. However, the documents I obtained prove otherwise.

    上面的剪報來自於1904年4月7日美國舊金山的San Francisco Chronicle這份報紙(注意左上角的日期),這一則報導指出,興中會的領袖孫逸仙先生於前一日(6日)搭乘高麗輪(S. S. Korea)自檀香山(Honolulu)抵達舊金山。但是孫先生並沒有馬上獲准入境,移民局(Immigration Service)的官員Ward E. Thompson在7日登上高麗輪詢問他若干問題,並取得他簽名過的證詞。下圖就是這兩頁證詞的最前段,注意孫先生回答說他出生於夏威夷群島:
    The newspaper clipping above is from the April 7, 1904, issue of San Francisco Chronicle. The news article says “Dr. Sun Yat Sen, a famous leader of the Hing Chung Wooy, or Chinese Progressive Society, arrived on the steamer Korea yesterday from Honolulu, en route to New York.” But Sun was not immediately admitted. The Chinese Inspector, Ward E. Thompson, from the Immigration Service boarded the ship S.S. Korea on April 7 to question Sun and obtained his signed testimony, the first part of which is shown below:

    證詞全文的連結如後:第一頁第二頁。在孫先生等待入境的期間,移民局分別在11日和12日於舊金山詢問了證人Sun Chong和Francis Williams Damon,以確認孫逸仙是否真的在夏威夷出生。Sun Chong在證詞中稱孫逸仙為uncle,也就是他父親的弟弟。14日,移民局又在舊金山訊問了證人Tong King Chong,這位證人指稱當時的報紙都說孫逸仙生於夏威夷。這三人應該就是邵銘煌先生所指「國父在舊金山的親友」吧。
    The full document of the statement is here: page 1, page 2. While Sun was waiting for his admission, the Immigration Service in San Francisco questioned Sun Chong, a nephew of Sun Yat-Sen, and Francis Williams Damon, a missionary, on the 11th and 12th, respectively. On April 14, the Immigration obtained the testimony of Tong King Chong, who said the newspaper had always said that he [Sun] was a native of H.I. The three gentlemen must be the “friends and relatives in San Francisco” referred to by Shao.

    然而移民局在15日決定不准孫逸仙先生入境,以下就是移民局書面通知的前半段(全文在此,文件下半還有孫先生的簽字):
    However, the Immigration Service officially refused Sun admission on April 15. The following image is the first half of the notice:

    所以這時候「國父在舊金山的親友」應該開始運作取得他在夏威夷出生的證明了吧?
    So, according to Shao’s statement, those friends and relatives by now should have been working hard to obtain the Hawaiian birth certificate, right?

    錯!早在他登上高麗輪前往舊金山之前,孫逸仙先生就已經拿到了夏威夷官方發給的出生證明,下面這封信就是證據,請注意信上的日期:
    WRONG! Sun already had the birth certificate in hand BEFORE he boarded S.S. Korea, as evidenced by the following letter by the Secretary of Hawaii, dated March 14, 1904:

    所以在時間上,孫先生先在檀香山取得了在夏威夷的出生證明,之後在孫先生被留置調查的期間由美國移民局詢問了舊金山的親友。因此「權宜之計」的說法,在時間順序上是有破綻的。誰可以告訴我們完整的真相呢?
    In summary, the “makeshift plan” in Shao’s words is not sound at all.

    在舊金山被移民局刁難的事件過後十年,已經卸下中華民國臨時大總統身分的孫先生再度叩關美國,而且這一次改拿日本護照,有美國政府的文件為證:
    Other documents I have show that Sun Yat Sen traveled to the US again in 1914, this time using a Japanese passport:

    所以孫先生是不是也有日本公民身分?該不會這又是另一個「權宜之計」吧?
    Don’t tell me this is another “makeshift plan”. Japanese government please say something.

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