• 英軍對台空襲:冰山烏龍行動 (Part 2)
    The British Bombed Formosa: Operation Iceberg Oolong (Part 2)

    Posted on May 8th, 2013 Administrator No comments


    儘管這張照片不是在台灣上空拍攝的,這兩架TBM極有可能參與了對台灣的攻擊行動。
    Although this photos of Indomitable Avengers was not taken over Formosa, chances were that they took part in the Formosa raid.

    第57特遣艦隊指揮官在徵詢過旗下第1航母戰隊後,向美國的第5艦隊表示可以擔負起攻擊台灣的任務。4月10日凌晨,美軍太平洋戰區總司令批准了對台攻擊任務。第57特遣艦隊指揮官隨即對相關的友軍發出電訊,說明他們將於11、12日兩天的午前對松山與新竹兩座日軍機場發動攻擊,執行兩次任務的飛機都預定於當地時間上午0700從與那國島西南方30英哩處起飛。
    After consulting with the 1st Aircraft Carrier Squadron (A.C.1), the Commander of TF 57 (CTF 57) informed COM 5th Fleet that TF 57 was ready to attack Formosa. The final approval from CINCPAC was received in the early hours of April 10. After discussing with A.C.1, CTF 57 sent the following message to inform all concerned.

    4月10日中午,第57特遣艦隊把任務規劃的細節透過關島發送給相關單位;當天下午1700,第57特遣艦隊開始航向任務起飛位置,並由第1航母戰隊接手指揮。這項攻擊台灣的任務的代號訂為「冰山烏龍」行動(Operation Iceberg Oolong)。
    At 1203 on April 10, the final signals were transmitted to Guam W/T for various authorities giving final details. At 1700 with the Fleet steering for its flying-off position, CTF 57 handed over tactical command to A.C.1. The operation was named Iceberg Oolong.

    以下是第57特遣艦隊所記載接下來的三天裡冰山烏龍行動進行的歷程:
    The following is the chronology of Operation Iceberg Oolong, taken almost verbatim from CTF 57’s action report:

    April 11:

    第57特遣艦隊於清晨0600抵達那國島西南方30英哩外的任務起飛位置,風向北北東,風浪中等,雲高約1000英呎,並有陣雨。
    The Fleet arrived in flying-off position 30 miles 202 degrees from Yonakumi Shima at 0600. There was a fresh N.N.E. wind, a moderate sea and short swell. Cloud base was about 1,000 feet with intermittent rain and drizzle.

    艦隊掉轉航向,但是天氣看來不太可能好轉,而且氣象預報顯示松山地區的天氣不適合發動攻擊。艦隊雖然曾考慮派出規模較小的戰鬥機群繞行台灣北海岸飛到新竹,但是這樣一來就沒有奇襲的效果,回程的安全性也堪慮,萬一要進行海空搜索,天氣也十分不利。因此艦隊決定將任務延後24小時,並持續向東南方航行。艦隊指揮官在晚間通知了第五艦隊,將延後到12、13日再對台灣發動攻擊。
    Course was reversed and in daylight it was soon apparent that conditions were unlikely to improve in the flying area during the day while weather reports showed that conditions over Matsuyama precluded any hope of attack. It was considered that a small fighter sweep coasting round North Formosa might find Shinchiku, but that their return journey would be a considerable gamble and surprise lost. Conditions were most unsuitable also for air-sea rescue. Operations were accordingly postponed 24 hours, and the Fleet continued to the south eastward. During the night I had informed Commander 5th Fleet of the postponement and that we strike Formosa ,on 12th and I3th April.

    April 12:

    天氣狀況在前夜大幅好轉。兩批各由24架轟炸機和20架戰鬥機組成的攻擊梯隊於上午0715於北緯23度58½分、東經122度46分的位置起飛,由於雲層的影響,機群無法飛越中央山脈,因此繞行台灣北海岸前往目標區。
    The weather had improved considerably during the night. The two main strikes, each of 24 bombers and 20 fighters, were flown off at 0715 from position 23° 58½’ N 122° 46′ E and proceeded in company around the coast. Cloud prevented either strike going over the mountains.

    攻擊梯隊之一以延遲引信炸彈轟炸新竹飛行場,並攻擊了疏散掩體位置。日軍只以防空砲火還擊,並未出動飛機。但由於松山飛行場上空的雲層遮掩,另一梯隊改為攻擊基隆港,成員目視了化學工廠、碼頭、裝載區被炸中。
    One strike bombed Shinchiku airfields with delay fuzed bombs and attacked dispersals. There was flak but no airborne opposition. Due to cloud conditions over Matsuyama airfield the other strike attacked their alternative target Kiirun harbour where hits were observed on the chemical plant, dock area and shipping.

    有一個小隊的飛機飛到松山飛行場上空勘查,沒有發現日軍有任何活動,隨後攻擊了附近的一個火車站和工廠,同時摧毀了地面的一架日軍飛機(按:記錄為Toss,但我找不到這種飛機的型號),位於松山飛行場南面的一座橋樑也被摧毀。小隊並攻擊了在淡水一帶的船隻。
    One flight investigated Matsuyama and found little activity. A nearby railway station and factory were attacked and one Toss was destroyed on the ground. A bridge over the river south of Matsuyama was destroyed and shipping at Tansui shot up.

    隸屬於勝利號(HMS Victorious)航空母艦上第849中隊的海軍中尉Daniel McAleese的復仇者(Avenger)型轟炸機被擊墜於基隆外海,McAleese雖被救起並送到基隆的一個醫院,仍於次日傷重不治。
    A New Zealand pilot, Sub-Lieutenant Daniel McAleese, of 849 Squadron, HMS Victorious, was lost when his Avenger crashed on Sharyo Island off Keelung harbour. He was badly injured and died next day in a Japanese hospital at Keelung.


    Daniel McAleese

    April 13:

    上午0645,復仇者型轟炸機再度起飛前往轟炸松山和新竹飛行場。
    At 0645 Avenger strikes were flown to attack Matsuyama and Shinchiku airfields.

    由於松山飛行場的天氣不錯,英軍飛機順利轟炸了跑道、營房、疏散掩體等設施,並炸中一座油庫或彈藥庫,但地面停放的飛機並不多。英軍飛機隨後飛到宜蘭飛行場,對地面12架飛機掃射,但戰果不明。
    The weather over Matsuyama was fair, runways, barracks and dispersal points were successfully bombed, and a petrol or ammunition dump blown up. Few aircraft were seen on the airfield. Fighters shot up about 12 aircraft on Giran airfield without apparent result.

    另外一支復仇者型轟炸機的隊伍轟炸了新竹飛行場的跑道和設施。在今天的任務中,英軍沒有損失任何飛機,日軍飛機也沒有起飛還擊。
    The other Avenger force bombed Shinchiku airfield through low cloud, hitting runway intersections and installations. No aircraft were lost in either of these strikes and there was no airborne opposition.

    (未完待續,To be continued)

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