• 在台北刑務所被日軍處決的美軍戰俘 American POWs Executed by Japanese Army in Taihoku Prison (Part 1)

    Posted on August 5th, 2012 Administrator 1 comment


    Source: NARA via Academia Sinica 中央研究院臺灣文史資源海外徵集與國際合作計畫「美國國家檔案館典藏臺灣舊航空照片」

    本月11日下午,Taiwan POW Camps Memorial Society將在光點台北舉行第五屆遠東區戰俘日的紀念活動。藉著這個時間點,我在此分享1945年6月19日被日軍在台北刑務所(台北監獄,見上圖)處決的14名美軍的相關資料。
    On August 11th, the Taiwan POW Camps Memorial Society will host the 5th FEPOW (Far East Prisoner of War) DAY event to be held in Taiwan. The event will take place on the 2nd floor of the SPOT THEATRE (18, Chungshan North Road Sec. 2) in downtown Taipei. To commemorate this event, I will blog about the fourteen American POWs executed by the Japanese in Taihoku (Taipei) Prison (see photo above) on June 19, 1945.

    上圖的偵察照片就攝於處決的前兩天,6月17日。可以看見監獄被轟炸過,因此部分房舍殘缺不全。刑務所的北側(靠照片的上方)有個三角形的區域,就是用來處決人犯的刑場所在。
    The reconnaissance photo was taken just two days before the execution, June 17. It can be seen that the prison had been bombed as several buildings were severely damaged. The execution ground was located in the walled triangular area on the north side of the prison (near top of the photo).

    當年的監獄只剩下部分北側與南側的圍牆,但是日治時期蓋在這兩側牆外的兩排平房卻依然留在原地(下圖中黃色箭頭所指處),不過它們還能存在多久就要看台北市長的智慧了。
    The place where the prison used to locate is now bordered by Jinshan S. Rd. on the east side with Aiguo E. Rd. going straight through the middle, dividing the area in halves. Although the prison is long gone, those houses outside its north wall and south wall are mostly still there (indicated by the two yellow arrows in the image below). How long they will continue to be there is up to the mayor of Taipei.

    Taiwan POW Camps Memorial Society在原來的北側外牆上立牌紀念這14名美軍戰俘,並列出了他們的大名。以下是1945年10月的一份美國報紙,文字敘述這些美軍骨灰被發現的經過,這一則新聞應該是他們的姓名首次公諸於世。
    In 2009, the Taiwan POW Camps Memorial Society erected a plaque on the north wall of the prison, listing the names of the 14 slain airmen. The newspaper below, dated October 19, 1945, was mostly likely the first time their names were made public at the same time:


    Source: The News of Tonawanda

    我要首先分享的是其中兩位美國海軍航空兵Charles E. McVay與Harry H. Aldro(上面的新聞誤植為Aldo)的相關資料。網路上搜尋到他們的相關資料大部分都有問題,通常是說他們在1944年10月轟炸台灣時被擊落,或著說他們是從勇往號(USS Enterprise, CV-6)航艦起飛執行任務的。但是根據第38.2特遣艦隊(Task Group 38.2)在1945年2月完成的作戰報告,McVay與Aldro是在1945年1月4日從列克星頓號(USS Lexington, CV-16)起飛執行對台灣攻擊任務,負責駕駛他們搭乘的TBM魚雷轟炸機的是William T. Ross中尉,他們三人在台東外海的水面迫降後搭上了救生筏:
    Among these airmen, I will first blog about Charles E. McVay and Harry H. Aldro (misspelled as Aldo in the above newspaper clip). Most of the information on the internet about these two men either said that they were shot down in October 1944 or pointed out that they took off from USS Enterprise (CV-6). However, according to the report filed by the commander of Task Group 38.2 (COMTASKGROUP 38.2) in February 1945, McVay and Aldro took off in the TBM piloted by William T. Ross from USS Lexington (CV-16) on January 4, 1945, for a mission over Formosa. Where they made water landing was just off Taito (Taitung) near Green Island.


    Source: NARA via Fold3.com

    由於這份報告撰寫的時間離事發當時最接近,所以可信度非常高。這份報告還指出,美軍曾派出Aspro號潛艦(SS-309)前往搜救,但未能尋獲,而當時海象也無法使用水上飛機救援。
    Since this report was written almost immediately after the attack, it is much more reliable than the modern websites. This report also pointed out that “Lifeguard sub Aspro unable to locate. Too rough for seaplane.”

    以下文件則是取自列克星頓號的作戰報告,雖然文字中沒有列出這三位機員的姓名,但明顯可以看出是同一事件:
    The following table was extracted from USS Lexington’s report. Although no names were given, it was clearly referring to the same event as in the COMTASKGROUP 38.2 report.


    Source: NARA via Fold3.com

    列克星頓號的作戰報告另外敘述當天的天氣後來變壞,導致台灣西部的機場都被雲層遮掩,因此列克星頓號的第四波攻擊改以台東為目標。雖然未在台東發現敵機,但廠站營舍被擊中起火。其中一架魚雷轟炸機被防空砲火擊中後在台東外海15英哩處迫降,飛行員與兩名機員被目視發現爬上救生筏,但救援行動並不成功。
    Lexington’s report also stated: “The clouds which blanketed the west coast fields caused the diversion of the fourth strike of the day to Taito on the east. No aircraft were seen but fires were started in stores and barracks areas. AA hit one of our torpedo planes which landed in the water 15 miles to the east of Taito. The pilot and his crewmen were seen to get into their raft, but rescue efforts were not successful.”

    以下照片取自Naval Aviation Museum的網站,根據網站的敘述,這張照片背面寫著「”Aldro, Ross, McVay」三個字,幾乎可以確認他們就是前面文件裡提到的三名官兵。儘管Ross是負責駕駛的飛行員,他卻沒有被日軍判處死刑,而是成為日軍的戰俘。
    The next photo was taken from Naval Aviation Museum’s website, which describes that a handwritten note on the back reads “Aldro, Ross, McVay.” It is almost certain that they were the three airmen in above document. Although Ross was the pilot, he was not executed but reported to become a POW in Japan.


    Source: Naval Aviation Museum

     

    1 responses to “在台北刑務所被日軍處決的美軍戰俘 American POWs Executed by Japanese Army in Taihoku Prison (Part 1)” RSS icon

    • 最近在竹中信子著《日治台灣生活史--日本女人在台灣(昭和篇1926-1945)下》(時報文化,2009)讀到了不同的記載。第467頁說:

      安藤軍司令官為了避免日後遭到指責,便指示對待俘虜要合理慎重。然而,大本營陸軍部以參謀次長名義發來的極機密電報卻命令:「應斷然處分。」安藤軍司令官從台灣前往大本營確認電報的本意,但台中方面卻在六月十九日就依循強硬命令,槍斃了十四名俘虜並土葬。

      儘管這本書的翻譯不是很好,但有可能把「台北」翻成「台中」嗎?戰後不久的報導說這些戰俘的骨灰是在一座寺廟裡找到,那為什麼是土葬呢?


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