• 原廠和合作生產的UH-1H

    Posted on August 18th, 2007 Administrator No comments

    我在美援的UH-1H(越搞越糊塗了)裡提到,美國在1968和1969會計年度裡總共援助台灣11架UH-1H。以下是我在美國國家檔案局查到的兩筆記錄:

     

    Field Title Value Meaning
    Record Number 3 Materiel Records
    Record Control Number TA67 TA67
    Method of Funding 2 .002 fund appropriation
    Action Code A Changes Presented to Program Manager for Decision Change Approved For Entry In Master File
    National Stock Number 1520 1520
    Commercial Consumables/Condition Code 1520000877637 1520000877637
    National Codification Bureau Number 00 United States
    Item Number 0877637 0877637
    Generic Code A4U Aircraft, Helicopters: Utility
    Commitment Code 0 No U.S. commitment involved.
    Unit of Issue EA Each – A numeric quantity of one item of supply. Do not use if more specific term applies, such as kit, set, assortment, assembly, group, sheet, plate, strip, or length.
    Reason Code    
    Change Originator    
    Student Code    
    Quantity 00008 8
    Program Orginator B SA [Security Assistance] (Army)
    Country Code TW Taiwan
    Duration    
    Type of Assistance 1 Grant Aid rendered under the authority of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, for which the United States receives no reimbursement.
    MAP Unit Price 00000000 0
    Cost Code 0 Undefined Code
    Program Year 69 1969
    MAP Element Code 7000 Undefined Code
    Lead Time    
    Spare Parts Code    
    Commercial Consumables / Condition Code    
    Communications Ancillary Item Code    
    Blank 00 00
    Status Code F Funded requirement which has been released via MAP [Military Assistance Program] / IMET [International Military Education & Training] Order for implementation.
    Funding Priority    
    Issue Priority    
    Required Delivery Date    
    Milstrip Routing Identifier B00 B00
    Implementing Agency B Department of the Army
    Systems Identifier Code Total Quarter    
    Fiscal Code 7 7
    Requirements Priority 0 0
    Source of Supply E Excess: From stocks excess to MILDEP [US Military Departments] /Defense Supply Agency supplied to meet MAP [Military Assistance Program] and FMS [Foreign Military Sales] requirements.
    MAP Dollar Cost 00000000 0
    Description HELICOPTER UH-1H HELICOPTER UH-1H
    Unified Command P PACOM [Pacific Command]
    Sub-Area 1 1
    Area 1 East Asia and Pacific (EAP)
    Country Code Number 247 247
    Control Code N N
    Punch Code/Pending Code    
    Quantity Control 1 1
    Selected Item Description Number 265 HELICOPTER UH-1
    MAP Order Program Year    
    MAP Order Number    
    Delivery Status Code P Deliveries were completed in a prior quarter.
    Delivery Discrepancy Code    
    Acquisition Unit Price 00255365 255365
    Excess Cost 02042920 2042920
    Total Delivery Quantity 00008 8
    Total Delivery Cost 00000000 0
    Total Delivery Excess Cost 02042920 2042920
    Current Quarter Delivery Quantity 00000 0
    Current Quarter Delivery Cost 00000000 0
    Current Quarter Delivery Excess Cost 00000000 0

     

    Field Title Value Meaning
    Record Number 3 Materiel Records
    Record Control Number YZ47 YZ47
    Method of Funding 2 .002 fund appropriation
    Action Code A Changes Presented to Program Manager for Decision Change Approved For Entry In Master File
    National Stock Number 1520 1520
    Commercial Consumables/Condition Code 1520000877637 1520000877637
    National Codification Bureau Number 00 United States
    Item Number 0877637 0877637
    Generic Code A4U Aircraft, Helicopters: Utility
    Commitment Code 0 No U.S. commitment involved.
    Unit of Issue EA Each – A numeric quantity of one item of supply. Do not use if more specific term applies, such as kit, set, assortment, assembly, group, sheet, plate, strip, or length.
    Reason Code    
    Change Originator    
    Student Code    
    Quantity 00003 3
    Program Orginator D SA [Security Assistance] (Air Force)
    Country Code TW Taiwan
    Duration    
    Type of Assistance 1 Grant Aid rendered under the authority of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, for which the United States receives no reimbursement.
    MAP Unit Price 00317554 317554
    Cost Code 0 Undefined Code
    Program Year 68 1968
    MAP Element Code 7000 Undefined Code
    Lead Time    
    Spare Parts Code    
    Commercial Consumables / Condition Code    
    Communications Ancillary Item Code    
    Blank 00 00
    Status Code F Funded requirement which has been released via MAP [Military Assistance Program] / IMET [International Military Education & Training] Order for implementation.
    Funding Priority    
    Issue Priority    
    Required Delivery Date    
    Milstrip Routing Identifier D00 D00
    Implementing Agency D Department of the Air Force
    Systems Identifier Code Total Quarter    
    Fiscal Code 7 7
    Requirements Priority 0 0
    Source of Supply K Procurement or Replacement: Items will be assigned this code: (1) When they are to be provided from MILDEP [US Military Departments] procurement, financed initially by MILDEP appropriations. (2) When they are to be furnished from MILDEP or DLA [Defense Logistics Agency] inventories, and procurement is required to replace such items. MAP [Military Assistance Program] items will be included in this category despite the fact that the items planned for procurement to replace the MAP delivery will be in terms of the latest model (preferred item). Thus “Replacement in Kind” covers replacement of an item with the same model items, or a replacement of an acceptable substitute with a preferred item. Resources obtained from the sale of this materiel will be available to finance the MILDEP or DLA reimbursable budget plan as it is classified for the budget document.
    MAP Dollar Cost 00952662 952662
    Description HELICOPTER UH-1H HELICOPTER UH-1H
    Unified Command P PACOM [Pacific Command]
    Sub-Area 1 1
    Area 1 East Asia and Pacific (EAP)
    Country Code Number 247 247
    Control Code N N
    Punch Code/Pending Code    
    Quantity Control 1 1
    Selected Item Description Number 265 HELICOPTER UH-1
    MAP Order Program Year    
    MAP Order Number    
    Delivery Status Code P Deliveries were completed in a prior quarter.
    Delivery Discrepancy Code    
    Acquisition Unit Price 00000000 0
    Excess Cost 00000000 0
    Total Delivery Quantity 00003 3
    Total Delivery Cost 00952662 952662
    Total Delivery Excess Cost 00000000 0
    Current Quarter Delivery Quantity 00000 0
    Current Quarter Delivery Cost 00000000 0
    Current Quarter Delivery Excess Cost 00000000 0

    由於一般的認知是空軍的救護隊在1970年接收了9架UH-1H(我國把這批UH-1H稱為HH-1H),上面這兩筆記錄是蠻有爭議的,我也曾懷疑是否記錄上的數量有誤。然而前幾天在美國的國家檔案局的資料庫裡又發現一份1973年9月27日的電報,上面提到我國之前已經接收了11架UH-1H,與上面兩份軍援記錄的數字不謀而合。這份電報來自美國政府的外交系統,兩相對照之下,我認為11架這個數字應該是沒有問題的。不過在舉出證據之前,我先談談中美兩國合作生產UH-1H的事,因為這才是這份電文的主題(REVIEW OF REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTINUED UH-1H CO-PRODUCTION AND RELATED PROGRAMS)。

    相信研究過這段歷史的人都知道,合作生產118架UH-1H是分成兩個階段進行的。這份電報在REF這一欄就列出了美國政府批准雙方備忘錄的日期(文件A和文件B):

    A. MOU RELATING TO UH-1H ASSEMBLY AND CO-PRODUCTION PROGRAM (PHASE I), APPROVED 13 AUGUST 69;
    B. MOU RELATING TO UH-1H AND T-53 ENGINE ASSEMBLY AND CO-PRODUCTION PROGRAMS (PHASE II), APPROVED 12 OCT. 72;
    C. SECURITY ASSISTANCE PROGRAM OBJECTIVE MEMORANDUM (POM), FY1975-79, AS APPROVED BY ASD/ISA ON 14 MAY 73;
    D. TAIPEI 4202–120750Z JUL 73

    合作生產的第一階段涵蓋了50架UH-1H,不過航發中心的角色似乎只是組裝而已,因為所需的零組件都是美製的:

    REF A PROVIDES FOR THE CO-PRODUCTION/CO-ASSEMBLY OF 50 UH-1H HELICOPTERS ON TAIWAN, USING PARTS AND ASSEMBLIES (TO INCLUDE T-53 TURBINE ENGINES) PROCURED FROM US CONTRACTORS.

    第二階段包括68架UH-1H和80具T53發動機:

    REF B PROVIDES FOR THE CO-PRODUCTION/CO-ASSEMBLY OF AN ADDITIONAL 68 HELICOPTERS (PHASE II), PLUS THE CO-ASSEMBLY ON A TRIAL BASIS OF 80 T-53 ENGINES TO SUPPORT UH-1H CO-PRODUCTION AND TO PROVIDE NECESSARY ENGINE SPARES.

    比較「勁爆」是文件C,因為當時中美不僅協議合作生產上述數量UH-1H的T53發動機,甚至還保留了在第三階段生產另外118架UH-1H和144具T53發動機的空間:

    REF C CONTAINS FOR PLANNING PURPOSES US$60.3 MILLION–SUM OF “UH-1H” AND “AIRCRAFT SUPPORT” LINES DURING PERIOD FY75-76 FOR CONTINUED CREDIT SUPPORT OF PHASE III COPRODUCTION/CO-ASSEMBLY OF 118 ADDITIONAL UH-1H HELICOPTERS AND 144 ADDITIONAL T-53 ENGINES, SHOULD THIS COURSE OF ACTION PROVE DESIRABLE FROM A US VIEWPOINT.

    當然我們已經知道這個「第三階段」並沒有實現,原因可能就是不符合最後一句所說的:SHOULD THIS COURSE OF ACTION PROVE DESIRABLE FROM A US VIEWPOINT。不過如果當初真的合作生產了236架UH-1H,我國準備如何運用呢?這份電報也說明得很清楚:

    OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS BEING IMPLEMENTED BY MINISTRY OF NATIONAL DEFENSE REMAIN BASICALLY AS OUTLINED IN PARAGRAPH 2, REF B, WITH 236 UH-1H AIRCRAFT PROJECTED FOR ASSIGNMENT TO ROC GROUND FORCES — 192 TO ARMY (ROCA), AND 44 TO MARINE CORPS (CMC).

    不僅陸軍的需求長到了192架,連海軍陸戰隊也要44架!陸軍打算利用這些直昇機成立三個航空大隊:

    ROCA AIRCRAFT ARE PROJECTED FOR ASSIGNMENT WITHIN THREE AVIATION GROUPS, EACH EQUIVALENT TO A US ARMY AVIATION BATTALION.

    但是這三個籌建中的航空大隊有不同的規模,第一個大隊(注意:我不是說「第一大隊」)旗下只有兩個中隊,各配備22架UH-1H:

    FIRST WILL BE ACTIVATED AND EQUIPPED THIS FISCAL YEAR, AND WILL CONSIST OF TWO HELICOPTER SQUADRONS (EQUIVALENT TO US ARMY HELICOPTER COMPANIES) WITH 22 AIRCRAFT ASSIGNED IN EACH SQUADRON. UNIT WILL HAVE THE MISSION OF PROVIDING GENERAL AVIATION SUPPORT TO ROC 1ST AND 2ND FIELD ARMIES–BOTH LOCATED ON TAIWAN PROPER–AND, IN ADDITION, WILL SUPPORT ROCA AVIATION SCHOOL (KUEI REN) FOR TRAINING OF ROCA AND CMC PILOTS, CREW, AND MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL, REQUIREMENT: 44 UH-1H HELICOPTERS.

    第二個大隊和第三個大隊分別位於龍潭和新社,各有三個中隊(各22架),外加一個偵察分隊(8架):

    UNDER CURRENT PRODUCTION SCHEDULES, SECOND ROCA GROUP WILL BE ACTIVATED AND FULLY EQUIPPED BY FY77. IT WILL CONSIST OF THREE HELICOPTER SQUADRONS–WITH 22 HELICOPTERS ASSIGNED TO EACH–AND ONE RECONNAISANCE FLIGHT (PLATOON) OF EIGHT AIRCRAFT. THIS GROUP WILL BE ASSIGNED MISSION OF PROVIDING DIRECT AVIATION SUPPORT TO ROC 1ST FIELD ARMY BASED AT LUNG TAN IN NORTHERN TAIWAN. REQUIREMENT: 74 UH-1H HELICOPTERS.
    THIRD ROCA GROUP IS PROJECTED FOR ACTIVATION WITH FULL EQUIPMENT BY FY81 AND WILL HAVE SAME ORGANIZATION AS SECOND ROCA GROUP. UNIT WILL PROVIDE DIRECT AVIATION SUPPORT TO ROC 2ND FIELD ARMY, BASED AT HSIN SHE IN CENTRAL TAIWAN. REQUIREMENT: 74 UH-1H HELICOPTERS.

    陸戰隊預備成立的航空大隊,跟陸軍的第一個航空大隊組織相同,預定以左營為基地:

    ROC MARINE CORPS GROUP, ORGANIZED IDENTICALLY TO FIRST ROCA GROUP, WILL BE BASED AT TSOYING IN SOUTHERN TAIWAN, AND WILL BE ACTIVATED AND EQUIPPPED BY FY83. PRIMARY MISSION OF THIS GROUP WILL BE RAPID DEPLOYMENT OF COMBAT MARINES TO TROUBLE SPOTS, BUT, DEPENDING ON TACTICAL SITUATION, UNIT CAN PROVIDE REQUISITE AVIATION SUPPORT IN SOUTHERN TAIWAN AREA GENERALLY. REQUIREMENT: 44 UH-1H HELICOPTERS.

    這份由美國駐台大使館發給國務卿的電報,事實上是站在我國這邊的,不僅贊成進行第三階段的合作,還把預期損耗和零件備份考慮進去,認為我國一共需要305架UH-1H和359具T53發動機:

    TOTAL PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS, INCLUDING TACTICAL USAGE, MAINTENANCE FLOATS/SPARES, AND ATTRITION, ARE 305 UH-1H HELICOPTERS AND 359 T-53 ENGINES.

    整個合作生產計畫的預定時程如下表:

                                    FUNDING PROD
    CATEGORY              UH-1H      T-53      FY’S       FY’S
    1. REQUIREMENTS   305          359
    2. ACQUISITIONS
    A. PRIOR (1)            11           70
    B. CO-PRODUCTION 294          289       69-81     71-84
    PHASE I & II (2)       (118)       (80)       (69-74)  (71-77)
    PHASE III (3)           (118)       (144)     (75-78)  (77-82)
    PHASE IV (4)           (58)         (65)       (79-81)  (82-84)
    NOTES:
    (1) PRIOR HELICOPTER ACQUISITIONS, EACH WITH T-53 ENGINE, WERE OBTAINED THROUGH GRANT AID, EDA, AND FMS PURCHASE. IN ADDITION, 59 T-53 ENGINES ARE BEING PURHCASED TO SUPPORT PHASE I COP-PRODUCTION, PLUS SPARES.
    (2) PER REF’S A AND B. PRODUCTION SCHEDULES FOR PHASE II AND BEYOND MAY BE DECREASED TO 2 AIRCRAFT PER MONTH-VICE 3–TO ENABLE SHARING OF PRODUCTION FACILITIES WITH F-5 OC-ASSEMBLY PROGRAM. REDUCED PRODUCTION RATE IS RELECTED IN PRODUCTION FY’S SHOWN.
    (3) CONSTITUTES NEXT LOGICAL INCREMENT FOR US FUNDING CONSIDERATION.
    (4) PRODUCTION AND FUNDING SCHEDULES ARE CONJECTURAL INCREMENT WOULD BE REQUIREDTO COMPLETE TOTAL PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS.

    上表中值得注意的是A. PRIOR這一列和註釋(1),因為這是我一開始所提到的新證據:我國在合作生產計畫之前,已經取得11架UH-1H和11具發動機。而且這些直昇機已經配發給部隊使用:

    GIVEN JUSTIFIABLE PRIORITY ATTACHED TO SAR MISSION, AIRCRAFT ARE ALREADY ASSIGNED AND OPERATIONAL IN SQUADRON, SIGNIFICANTLY ENHANCING ROC COASTAL AND INLAND SEARCH AND RESCUE CAPABILITIES.

    現在的問題是:如果空軍救護隊一開始真的只接收了9架UH-1H,那麼另外兩架到哪裡去了?

     

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