• 終戰時位於台灣的戰俘營
    POW Camps on Formosa at the End of WWII

    Posted on July 30th, 2016 Administrator 1 comment


    アジア歴史資料センター
    Japan Center for Asian Historical Records

    1945年9月5日與6日,美國海軍第77.1特遣支隊(Task Group 77.1)的驅逐艦進入基隆港,接走了大部分在戰爭期間被拘禁在台灣的盟軍戰俘。根據當時的記錄,美軍在第一天先撤離了一號營(Camp #1)的戰俘,次日再接走四號營(Camp #4)與六號營(Camp #6)裡的戰俘。這些編號是指哪些戰俘營? 又位在哪裡?
    On September 5 and 6, 1945, destroyers from Task Group 77.1, US Navy, evcuated Allied POW who had been held on Formosa during WWII. The prisoners held in Camp #1 were first evacuated on the 5th, while the remaining prisoners in Camps #4 and #6 were rescued on the following day.

    其實這些編號往往不是指單一的戰俘營(日本方面稱為俘虜收容所),可能好幾個戰俘營被給予相同的編號,因此對現在的研究者造成了一些困擾。這是因為台灣戰俘營的編號是有延續性的,如果某一座戰俘營關閉後,原先收容的戰俘被移往另一處新成立的戰俘營,後者就會沿用前者的編號。以一號營為例,它最初是指1942年底設置於金瓜石(Kinkaseki)的俘虜收容所,當這座戰俘營於1945年3月關閉時,其中的戰俘被移往磺窟(Kukutsu),所以磺窟戰俘營就成為新的一號營。日本戰敗投降後,位於磺窟的戰俘被送到松山一帶的一座(疑似)工廠暫時安置,等待盟軍撤離,一號營的編號也隨著轉移。所以美軍在9月5日就是從這座被稱為中崙(Churon)的戰俘營接走戰俘,而當時這座戰俘營已非囚禁的性質,而是戰俘在撤離(Evacuation)前的暫居營,所以在某些文件上被稱為 Evacuation Camp,導致有研究者認為這是為了躲避空襲而成立的疏散營。其實只要從成立的時間點切入,就可以發現 Evacuation Camp 都是在終戰後成立的,並非什麼疏散營。
    Confusingly, each numerical camp designation often applied to more than one camp site. After one camp was closed from some reasons, the new camp to which its former prisoners were relocated got the same numerical designation. Take Camp #1 for example. The first Camp #1 was the prisoner camp set up in Kinkaseki in November 1942. When this camp site was closed in March 1945, its occupants were sent the site in Kukutsu, which then became Camp #1. After Japan surrendered on August 15, 1945, a makeshift evacuation camp was set up at a (possible) factory building in Churon to receive the prisoners in Kukutsu, pending the evacuation by the Allies. Consequently, the Churon site became Camp #1, from which 312 prisoners were rescued on September 5th.

    一號營 Camp #1

    終戰後的一號營雖然名為中崙,卻跟我們現在認知的中崙有點距離。對二戰期間在台盟軍戰俘有深入研究的「台灣戰俘營紀念協會」(Taiwan POW Camps Memorial Society) 理事長何麥克先生(Michael Hurst,MBE),根據戰俘的口述與一張戰俘營照片,研判其正確位置是在民生國中的現址。
    Although Camp #1 for evacuation was commonly referred to as Churon in the documents, it was not located where Churon is commonly known to be. Based on the descriptions by the POW and on photographs, Michael Hurst, Director of Taiwan POW Camps Memorial Society confirmed the site of Camp #1 as the current location of Minsheng Junior High School.

    下面這張1945年6月17日由美軍拍攝的空中偵察照,是目前所能找到在時間上最接近終戰日的同地區空照,對應到現在民生國中的位置是虛線框起來的區域:
    The following overhead photo of the same area was taken on June 17, 1945. The dashed-line area corresponds to the current location of Minsheng Junior High School:


    中央研究院人社中心GIS專題中心提供

    虛線區域內僅有一座大型建築,應該就是盟軍戰俘在撤離前暫時安置的一號營(但照片拍攝當時仍未收容戰俘):
    Detail photo of the dashed-line area above. Note that POW had not yet moved in at the time when the photo was taken:


    中央研究院人社中心GIS專題中心提供

    四號營 Camp #4

    至於四號營,最早是指1942年8月在花蓮港設置的俘虜收容所,該處拘禁的戰俘在1943年6月被移往白河,四號營也因此變成了白河戰俘營。終戰之初,白河的戰俘被送到台北市的陸軍病院圓山分院(升格前為圓山分室)安置,所以在9月6日撤離的四號營就是指這裡。圓山分院的原址目前是中山足球場。
    Camp #4 started as the one set up in Karenko in August 1942. In June 1943, most of the occupants were transferred to the new camp in Shiragawa, which then inherited the numerical designation. In the wake of the Japan surrender, the POW in Shiragawa were sent to the Maruyama Division of the Japanese Army Hospital. So when the American troops evacuated the POW on September 6, Camp #4 referred to the Maruyama Evacuation Camp. Currently located at its site is a soccer stadium.

    1945年6月17日拍攝的該地區空中偵察照,虛線框起來的區域即為當時的陸軍病院圓山分院:
    In the June 17, 1945, photo below, the Maruyama Hospital Division is marked by the dashed-line area:


    中央研究院人社中心GIS專題中心提供

    上圖虛線區域放大後如下,當時仍未安置盟軍戰俘(點擊照片可放大):
    Below is the blow-up of the dashed-line area (click to see the high-resolution image). Note that it had not yet housed the POW at the time.


    中央研究院人社中心GIS專題中心提供

    USS Block Island Association (Block Island是參與撤離戰俘任務的兩艘美軍航空母艦之一)的網頁提供了許多在撤離戰俘行動當時的照片,在與空照圖比對後,我可以確認以下幾張照片是在四號營拍攝的。從這些平面拍攝的照片,可以讓我們更清楚看到戰俘營的景象。下面這張照片的右上角,還可以看到台灣神社:
    Photos from the aforementioned September 1945 POW rescue operation are available on the website of USS Block Island Association, one of the two aircraft carriers participating in the operation. Using the overhead photos as a reference, I am able to positively identified the locations where some of the rescue operation photos were taken. In the photo of Camp #4 below, Taiwan Jinsha can be seen on the hill in the background near the upper-right corner:


    USS Block Island Association

    空照圖上看到的瞭望台,可以在以下兩張照片中看到(其實在上圖也看得到,只是沒那麼清楚),它也是協助研判照片拍攝地點的重要依據:
    In the next two photos, the lookout tower found on the overhead photo can be seen:


    USS Block Island Association


    USS Block Island Association

    上面三張照片的拍攝方向與角度,標示在下面這張圓山分院的空照上(點擊照片可放大):
    The locations where the above three photo were taken and their corresponding field of view are marked in the photo below (click to enlarge):


    中央研究院人社中心GIS專題中心提供

    六號營 Camp #6

    六號營從1942年11月在大直設置,一直到戰爭結束才關閉,因此其編號是少數從一而終的。不過我發現不管在美方或日方的文件上,都沒有用大直(Oonao)這個地名來稱呼這座戰俘營(或俘虜收容所),而是用台北市(Taihoku)。也因為它一直沒有搬遷,所以位置沒有疑義,就在現在的國防部的園區內(以下衛星照片被馬賽克的區域):
    Camp #6 had been the designation of the camp in Oonao throughout the war because it had remained at the same place since November 1942. But it was commonly referred to as the Taihoku Camp on both the records of the Allies and those by the Japanese. It site is now used by the Ministry of National Defense (the censored area in the Google satellite image below).

    1945年6月17日拍攝的同地區空照:
    The June 17, 1945, overhead reconnaissance photo of the same area:


    中央研究院人社中心GIS專題中心提供

    六號營的放大照片:
    Detailed photo of Camp #6


    中央研究院人社中心GIS專題中心提供

    USS Block Island Association的網頁也有幾張照片可以確定(或幾乎確定)是在六號營拍攝的以讓我們更清楚看到戰俘營的景象。從下面這張照片可以發現,六號營因為一直都是戰俘營,所以營房比原來是病院的四號營要簡陋,照片背景還可以看到基隆河對岸台灣煉瓦株式會社圓山工場的四根煙囪:
    Some photos found on the website of USS Block Island Association were taken at Camp #6. In the image below, the four smokestacks of the Taiwan Ceramics Maruyama Factory are visible in the background:


    USS Block Island Association

    下圖來自在戰後執行戰俘撤離台灣任務的美國海軍第77.1特遣支隊任務報告的封面:
    The next photo is taken from the Action Report of Task Group 77.1, which was responsible for executing the POW rescue mission:


    CTG 77.1 Action Report

    仔細觀察以下兩張USS Block Island Association網頁的照片,可以發現有部分樹型是一模一樣的,所以必然是在同地點拍攝:
    Pay close attention to the trees in the next two photos and you will see some of them are exactly the same. So the photos must have been taken at the same location.


    USS Block Island Association


    USS Block Island Association

    而在編號6-2與6-4的照片上可以看到同一名日本軍人,因此也是同一地點拍攝:
    The same Japanese soldier can be seen on both photos 6-2 and 6-4. So we can conclude these two photos were also taken at the same place:

    根據空照圖的比對,上面編號6-1到6-3等三張照片的拍攝方向與角度標示如下(點擊照片可放大):
    The locations where photo 6-1 to 6-3 were taken and their corresponding field of view are marked in the photo below (click to enlarge):


    中央研究院人社中心GIS專題中心提供

    在此要感謝USS Block Island Association與中央研究院人社中心GIS專題中心提供本文所用的照片,同時也要感謝何麥克先生與林俊昇先生協助空照圖的解讀。
    I would like to thank USS Block Island Association and The Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences (RCHSS) of Academia Sinica for kindly providing the images that are used in this article. Many thanks to Michael Hurst of Taiwan POW Camps Memorial Society and Mr. Chun-Sheng Lin for their assistance in analyzing the photos.

     

    1 responses to “終戰時位於台灣的戰俘營
    POW Camps on Formosa at the End of WWII” RSS icon

    • I would like to share the above photos and information to all the members of the USS Block Island Assn. The majority of our members do not have computers — World War Two Veterans.

      May I have this resent so I can copy it for our newsletter? We are a non-profit organization.

      Many thanks in advance,

      Bill MacInnes
      Editor – CHIPS
      USS BLOCK ISLAND ASSN.
      wmacinnes@aol.com
      San Diego, CA USA


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